The analogue to digital converters in many bolometer cameras are 14 bits or more. However, the usable dynamic range of the system is less than that.
We optimise the response and try to find the most linear part of the detector signal, avoiding non-linearities at the extreme ends of the response curve and also try to get rid of pixels far from the ideal gauss function to reduce background patterns and noise. This will reduce the dynamic range. There are different technical solutions for different types of detectors, this is true for most types of FPA‘s.